纪念

四月 22nd, 2006

   Under the Guidance of the New Course Idea  A Probe into the Cooperative Learning of Elementary English
 

Preface: The function of the new English course standard has already changed to learning to know, learning to do and learning to be .In new course, the main function of the teacher has changed from knowledge teacher to the promoter of student’s development; Meanwhile there are also conversion from independent learning into cooperative learning .The relation between teachers and students has been changing also. We regard students as the centre instead of teachers; the teaching background changes from isolated artificial background to simulation, actual life. English course standard (experiment draft), promulgated by Ministry of Education in 2001 autumn, emphasizes that the courses should base on the interest of learning, experience of life and cognitive level of students;it advocates a kind of learning method to experience, practice, participation in, cooperation and communion, as well the way of task-type teaching. It makes students’ learning processes of the language full with  initiative thinking, bold practice, training of cross-cultural consciousness, from which students can form the independent learning ability and positive emotion attitude.

Key phrase: the new course idea Cooperative Learning

The cooperative learning” was first advocated and put into practice by a famous American educationist (David  Koonts) in the seventies of the 20th century. It is a kind of study to attain the studying target together by division of labor and cooperate. With the interpersonal cooperation and interaction as the essential feature in teaching, it emphasizes the evaluation, especially in criterion-referenced model instead of norm-referenced model .It turns the competition between individual into the competition between a group ,transmits and exchanges information each other through the cooperation and interaction among the groups, and encourages students’ sense of participation, thus comes to the  realization of English classroom communication .It is a kind of original and effective teaching  strategies  which a lot of countries in the world generally adopt at present. Because it makes  remarkably achievement in enhancing study atmosphere , raising students by a large scale and promoting students to form good admitting that pay no attention to ,it is hailed as the most important and successful reform in education in recent ten years. Cooperative learning, which is based on the cooperative learning groupmakes fully use of dynamic factor in teaching to promote the study. It regards group score as the standard of evaluation, and then reaches the teaching target. The following are my viewpoints upon cooperative learning in primary English.

First:

A reasonable grouping set is a successful premise to make a do in cooperative learning.

In order to carry on valid cooperative group learning, the teacher must first proceeds to a reasonable grouping set. Usually there are two kinds of methods of group set. One of it lets students choose wantonly relying on their own interest. This is the one students prefer. Whenever I let them make up a new dialogue combining the new words and the learned, they are all in high spirit resulting in better effect. With the other method, the teacher arranges the students with different degree in a group according to different characteristics of different fields of each student. Students’ different characteristics including the age , sex , race , individual character , school grade , learning method and language ability ,etc.. Weaving students in different characteristics can urge them in a common development. When I carry on task based learning, I will require students of different characteristics to constitute a group (usually while distributing the new task). These different characteristics students get different development in the group and all get a taste of success. In addition, groups of small size can provide students with more opportunities to put in their two cents. Every group is suitable for four people, because its very easy to divide them into two pairs to carry on the peer-to-peer activity if needed. It is benefit for association of activity and inertia if they sit round the table in activity time. The discipline of the classroom is easy to control, too.

Second

 Reasonable and effective cooperation is the essential carrier of the cooperative learning.

The cooperative learning is a look at education concepts. But if there is no concrete study method as the carrier of implementation, then it will just stay in the level of theoretical realization forever. As to reach the goal of cooperative learning, we have to find an effective cooperative way. In the West, games tournament “, Student TeamAchievement Divisions “,” Jigsaw Procedure are commonly used in cooperative learning. Because courses and their objects are quite different, we cant use anything that’s ready to hand at once. According to pupils’ characteristic and the characteristic of English discipline, I rebuilt the learning method above. Considering the operability in the fulfillment, I adopted two methods showed below

 

(1) Group task learning

I finalized the tasks or the sliced ones to each group and regarded learning task as the centre. Group members not only divide the work and cooperate, but also enter details into group’s collective achievement. This kind of study activity, contacted with the task type teaching in English teaching closely, can arrange differently from content of courses during the period of lesson according to teaching. Before the class, I let students constitute groups to make up a dialogue they like and then make diary talk in first 5 minutes before the class. In class, I divide students into four people per group in various types, while carrying on a task type teaching, For example, when I was teaching the third volume of PEP teaching material Unit 5 Lets Learn, I designed such a task type teaching activity. First I divided different characteristics students into four people per group, then I handed out a form which asked them to use What would you like? Id like to…” to inquire what the group mates want to eat, and recorded. The concrete form is showed as follows:
Name rice fish
 beef soup noodles Vegetable juice bread milk

 

We can also adopt cooperative learning way to use in homework after class. After finishing the third volume of PEP teaching material Unit2 B” Lets learn “, I assigned a group’s task, which asked students to find which stationery do the group mates have? How many kinds are there in total? In order to get normative answers, I also handed out form showed below after class.

Name Story-books Picture-books note books Pens pencils crayons erasers rulers pencil-cases

 

The advantage of task type learning is making the study goals clearly and training student’s cooperative consciousness which apt to form strong collective sense of honor and sense of ownership, form the direction consciousness of “my honor of group’s honor” as well. But its clearly that   not all cooperation brings high efficiency.  In the cooperative group, the ones that play a leading role are often the certain person. There are always 2-3 people who may be occupied with nothing to do and their effort is not obvious. Now the team games tournament introduced below is adapted to avoid this disadvantage.

 

 

(2) Team games tournament (TGT, for short) is the earliest cooperative learning method which establishes by John Hopkins University. It also uses STADs teaching and group activity method, but the weekly test is substituted by weekly contest. In the contest, the students compete with the members from other groups and earn marks for their own group. The students carry on the contest by “contest desk” which is made up by 3 people and the rival is within the similar record of academic credits in the past. This kind of method has a procedure that is adjust constantly (bumping), The achievements of each contest react to adjustment every week to the arrangement of student’s contest desk, which make it tend towards justice. The winner of each contest desk earns the same mark for its group where he/she stays, and no matter which desk he/she belongs. This means studying slow students (compete with slow students of other study) all have a successful equality chance to study fast students (compete with fast students of other study). I usually divide students of different characteristics into one group in every English class. The competitions between the groups are very fierce, and then the top students will assist other students and have the same development. We need to pay attention to different characteristics students while designing the contest game. When I have the word lesson each time, I expend game to strike word with competition which group knocks at best. This requires top students to help the poor ones in order to reach common progress, so it can stimulate atmosphere of the classroom at the same time. While spelling words, every member in the group spells a letter, until spell this word out. This method is more practical and the effect is obvious as well.  All these require collective strength, so members in one group get more tacit to each other.

球赛

四月 22nd, 2006
       看露天电影,第一次看到剪了头发的giveup。呵呵,是有点不习惯。杜雁说这样的短发很干净。不刺激她了,看她心疼的样子。
   

      上网没带给我多的快乐,所以昨天很早就关机了。下午的时候还了图书馆的书,照例是超期了。还了两本,借回来5本。洗漱完毕就上床翻了翻书:50经典圣经故事。自从大麦跟我说起,她也不喜欢很规矩的做事,怎么睡觉前一定得洗脸洗脚,好烦琐,尽管她是个爱干净的小P孩。我就马上成了她的追捧者,懒懒的睡着。内容貌似很复杂的样子,就当故事书一样一页页的翻下来。临睡前给我的感觉就是一部追寻以色列祖宗的故事。早上竺又是照例的不到7点就起来了,我也照例的醒了。杜因为忙电脑节的事,很多天没好好睡了。她那么爱睡,真是难为她了。继续看书,到9点,已经翻了大半。起床,开机,看到有人留言球赛9:00。

       球赛输了,祖国是那种急性子的人。在大好的形势下,输了比赛,真替他可惜。傅誉明也是。心态很重要,在哪里都适用。什么比赛我都看不懂的,关键只是因为我的朋友们在。
       小沁还真够能过生活的,中午回寝室看到她已经搬了个冰箱过来了,这天气,,,,,,

责任

四月 13th, 2006
    答应的责任,有时候压得人喘不过气了。别随便给别人一个承诺,至少你得看自己是不是力所能及。
 
    送几个祝福吧:(。。。。)朋友们开心,一切(考试、考研、找工作、毕业设计、)顺利,当然也希望自己能摆好心态,fighting!

这样抑郁的季节,一个等着毕业的人。

四月 13th, 2006

    这年头,气候变化得厉害,从最高温度的30到最低温度的6度。原来还好好的,从信息楼出来就又是雨天了。雨下得不是很大,可淋到身上的雨水是冰冷的。遇到了老大,小气得不肯借我伞。嗯,是觉得跟以前越走越远了,跟室友也是这样。

  

      现在同是一个班级,她是班长。我愤恨的是,她的“爱国”为什么就得我也跟她一样,这让我越来越反感。本来班级的集体照说留念好,怎么好,在添上是为了班级网站的事,就让我觉得什么事怎么就那么虚伪,什么都是形式。班长的话似乎永远是对的,什么都得支持的,特别是同寝室的。我喜欢以前的班级,说白了就这样。就在寝室说“怎么这么恐怖的,以前035班也没拍过集体照”。立即引起了炮轰。老子我还真没觉得有什么好留恋的这个班,不过是跟小涛他们慢慢熟了起来。寝室里应该是言论更自由的地方,我却得处处觉得怕得罪人的样子。这样抑郁的季节,一个等着毕业的人。快转正了,找什么群众帮忙说说好话。难道平时做的事都是做做样子的。什么都是形式的,入党先进吗,保鲜就有用吗。爸妈说入党怎么好,村里能拿到公款的似乎都这群家伙。

    今天借机玩了会排球-练发球和对墙垫球。看老师跟大家玩成一伙,还挺有意思的,喜欢这种团队的活动。

世界上最强的信

四月 10th, 2006
    “实在不好意思,我还活着” 没称呼,没署名,没日期。。。。。
    test还在继续中,不过好像源码编辑器不能用。鼠标点过之处,就象橡皮擦一样,奇怪,